Brain Anatomy & Function

brain anatomy and function

Function Observed problems
Frontal Lobe awareness inability to focus on task
attention & concentration impaired recent memory
memory difficulty learning new information
cognition problem solving difficulty
motivation inability to plan sequence of tasks
judgment changes in social behavior
voluntary movement loss of simple movement
expressive language inability to express language (Broca’s Aphasia)
memory for habits & motor activities loss of flexibility in thinking
emotional control & impulse control mood changes (emotional lability)
word associations persistence of a single thought (perseveration)
ability to follow instructions
decision making
personality changes in personality
assigns meanings to words we choose loss of spontaneity
Function Observed problems
Parietal lobes visual attention inability to focus on visual attention
awareness of spatial relationships
touch inability to name an object Anomia)
recognition of faces difficulty in distinguishing right from left
goal-directed voluntary movements inability to locate the words for writing (Agraphia)
manipulation of objects problems with reading (Alexia)
integration of different senses that allows for understanding a single concept difficulty with drawing objects
difficulty in doing mathematics (Dyscalculia)
lack of awareness of certain body parts and/or surrounding space (Apraxia)
inability to attend to more than one object at a time
difficulties with eye and hand coordination
Function Observed problems
Occipital lobe visual perception defects in vision
visual input difficulty with locating objects in environment
difficulty with identifying colors (Color Agnosia)
production of hallucinations
inaccurately seeing objects
reading (perception & recognition of words) inability to recognize words
difficulties with reading and writing
movement of eyes inability to recognize the movement of an object (Movement Agnosia)
difficulty in recognizing drawn objects
Function Observed problems
Temporal lobes hearing, music, & receptive language difficulty in understanding spoken words (Wernicke’s Aphasia)
comprehension of language
memory acquisition short-term memory loss
memory for non-verbal events disturbance with selective attention to what we hear & see
information retrieval interference with long term memory
some visual perceptions difficulty with identification of and visualization about objects
categorizations of objects inability to categorize objects
expressed behavior increased aggressive behavior, agitation, irritability & childish behavior
increase or decrease in sexual behavior
difficulty in recognizing faces (Prosopagnosia)
right lobe damage can cause persistent talking
Function Observed problems
Cerebral cortex higher cortical functions
Cerebral cortex
Function Observed problems
Limbic system emotions loss of emotional control
Limbic system learning loss of recent memory
sense of smell loss of sense of smell
Function Observed problems
Thalamus processing center of the cerebral cortex altered level of consciousness
sensory relay–coordinates & regulates all functional activity of the cortex by integrating all nerve inputs (except smell) to the cortex loss of perception
contributes to affectual expression
Function Observed problems
Hypothalamus integrates the Autonomic Nervous System (body temperature & endocrine function) hormonal imbalances
parasympathetic function inability to control temperature
sympathetic function (flight or fight) diabetes insipidus
physical expressions of behavior
feeding center
pleasure center
Function Observed problems
Internal capsule motor tracts paralysis on the opposite side of the body
Internal capsule
Function Observed problems
Reticular activating system attention, eating, wakefulness, & arousal from sleep altered level of consciousness
Reticular activating system
Function Observed problems
Brain Stem breathing decreased vital capacity in breathing
brain.stem heart rate swallowing food & water (Dysphagia)
swallowing difficulty with organization & perception of environment
reflexes to seeing & hearing (startle reflex) problems with balance and movement
controls sweating, blood pressure, digestion, temperature (Autonomic Nervous System) dizziness & nausea
affects level of alertness sleeping difficulties (insomnia, sleep apnea)
ability to sleep
sense of balance (vestibular function)
Function Observed problems
Midbrain nerve pathways of cerebral hemispheres
mid.brain auditory & visual reflex centers
oculomotor nerve (III) eye movement
trochlear nerve (IV) controls muscle that rotates eye down & out
Pons respiratory center
trigemenal nerve (V)–facial skin, tongue, teeth, mastication
abducens nerve (VI) controls muscle that rotate eye outward
facial nerve (VII) controls muscles of expression
acoustic nerve (VIII) hearing & balance
Medulla oblongata crossing of motor tracts
cardiac center
respiratory center
vasomotor (nerves that control muscles of walls of blood vessels)
cough, gag, swallow, & vomit
glossopharyngeal nerve (IX) (pharynx & tongue)
vagus (X) pharynx, larynx, heart, lungs & stomach
accessory nerve (XI) rotation of head and shoulder
hypoglossal (XII) intrinsic muscles of the tongue
Function Observed problems
Cerebellum coordination of voluntary movement loss of ability to coordinate fine movements
balance & equilibrium loss of ability to walk
some memory for reflex motor acts inability to reach out and grab objects
dizziness (vertigo)
slurred speech
inability to make rapid movements
Right hemisphere holistic processing of multi-sensory input
Right Hemisphere visual spatial skills
memory stored in auditory, visual, & spatial modes
remembering non-verbal material
color discrimination
Left hemisphere analytic & sequential thinking
Left Hemisphere language
abstraction & reasoning
ability to name objects & their attributes
memory stored in language format