Brain Anatomy & Function

brain anatomy and function

FunctionObserved problems
Frontal Lobeawarenessinability to focus on task
attention & concentrationimpaired recent memory
memorydifficulty learning new information
cognitionproblem solving difficulty
motivationinability to plan sequence of tasks
judgmentchanges in social behavior
voluntary movementloss of simple movement
expressive languageinability to express language (Broca’s Aphasia)
memory for habits & motor activitiesloss of flexibility in thinking
emotional control & impulse controlmood changes (emotional lability)
word associationspersistence of a single thought (perseveration)
ability to follow instructions
decision making
personalitychanges in personality
assigns meanings to words we chooseloss of spontaneity
FunctionObserved problems
Parietal lobesvisual attentioninability to focus on visual attention
awareness of spatial relationships
touchinability to name an object Anomia)
recognition of facesdifficulty in distinguishing right from left
goal-directed voluntary movementsinability to locate the words for writing (Agraphia)
manipulation of objectsproblems with reading (Alexia)
integration of different senses that allows for understanding a single conceptdifficulty with drawing objects
difficulty in doing mathematics (Dyscalculia)
lack of awareness of certain body parts and/or surrounding space (Apraxia)
inability to attend to more than one object at a time
difficulties with eye and hand coordination
FunctionObserved problems
Occipital lobevisual perceptiondefects in vision
visual inputdifficulty with locating objects in environment
difficulty with identifying colors (Color Agnosia)
production of hallucinations
inaccurately seeing objects
reading (perception & recognition of words)inability to recognize words
difficulties with reading and writing
movement of eyesinability to recognize the movement of an object (Movement Agnosia)
difficulty in recognizing drawn objects
FunctionObserved problems
Temporal lobeshearing, music, & receptive languagedifficulty in understanding spoken words (Wernicke’s Aphasia)
comprehension of language
memory acquisitionshort-term memory loss
memory for non-verbal eventsdisturbance with selective attention to what we hear & see
information retrievalinterference with long term memory
some visual perceptionsdifficulty with identification of and visualization about objects
categorizations of objectsinability to categorize objects
expressed behaviorincreased aggressive behavior, agitation, irritability & childish behavior
increase or decrease in sexual behavior
difficulty in recognizing faces (Prosopagnosia)
right lobe damage can cause persistent talking
FunctionObserved problems
Cerebral cortexhigher cortical functions
Cerebral cortex
FunctionObserved problems
Limbic systememotionsloss of emotional control
Limbic systemlearningloss of recent memory
sense of smellloss of sense of smell
Diencephalon
FunctionObserved problems
Thalamusprocessing center of the cerebral cortexaltered level of consciousness
sensory relay–coordinates & regulates all functional activity of the cortex by integrating all nerve inputs (except smell) to the cortexloss of perception
contributes to affectual expression
FunctionObserved problems
Hypothalamusintegrates the Autonomic Nervous System (body temperature & endocrine function)hormonal imbalances
parasympathetic functioninability to control temperature
sympathetic function (flight or fight)diabetes insipidus
physical expressions of behavior
feeding center
pleasure center
FunctionObserved problems
Internal capsulemotor tractsparalysis on the opposite side of the body
Internal capsule
FunctionObserved problems
Reticular activating systemattention, eating, wakefulness, & arousal from sleepaltered level of consciousness
Reticular activating system
FunctionObserved problems
Brain Stembreathingdecreased vital capacity in breathing
brain.stemheart rateswallowing food & water (Dysphagia)
swallowingdifficulty with organization & perception of environment
reflexes to seeing & hearing (startle reflex)problems with balance and movement
controls sweating, blood pressure, digestion, temperature (Autonomic Nervous System)dizziness & nausea
affects level of alertnesssleeping difficulties (insomnia, sleep apnea)
ability to sleep
sense of balance (vestibular function)
FunctionObserved problems
Midbrainnerve pathways of cerebral hemispheres
mid.brainauditory & visual reflex centers
oculomotor nerve (III) eye movement
trochlear nerve (IV) controls muscle that rotates eye down & out
Function
Ponsrespiratory center
trigemenal nerve (V)–facial skin, tongue, teeth, mastication
abducens nerve (VI) controls muscle that rotate eye outward
facial nerve (VII) controls muscles of expression
acoustic nerve (VIII) hearing & balance
Function
Medulla oblongatacrossing of motor tracts
cardiac center
respiratory center
vasomotor (nerves that control muscles of walls of blood vessels)
cough, gag, swallow, & vomit
glossopharyngeal nerve (IX) (pharynx & tongue)
vagus (X) pharynx, larynx, heart, lungs & stomach
accessory nerve (XI) rotation of head and shoulder
hypoglossal (XII) intrinsic muscles of the tongue
FunctionObserved problems
Cerebellumcoordination of voluntary movementloss of ability to coordinate fine movements
balance & equilibriumloss of ability to walk
some memory for reflex motor actsinability to reach out and grab objects
tremors
dizziness (vertigo)
slurred speech
inability to make rapid movements
nystagmus
Function
Right hemisphereholistic processing of multi-sensory input
Right Hemispherevisual spatial skills
memory stored in auditory, visual, & spatial modes
remembering non-verbal material
color discrimination
Function
Left hemisphereanalytic & sequential thinking
Left Hemispherelanguage
mathematics
abstraction & reasoning
ability to name objects & their attributes
memory stored in language format

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